Spring is a lot of sunshine and general awakening. True, not for everyone it is a joy. Especially when it comes to freckles and pigment spots, which appear from the sun on the face and other parts of the body. Are freckles and pigment spots dangerous? Are they signs of serious diseases and genetic mutations? Is it necessary and possible to get rid of them?
Freckles are small pigment spots on the face and open areas of the body that appear under the influence of sunlight. The hereditary factor plays a crucial role in the formation of freckles, which is associated with a change in the structure of melanocyte cells, which synthesize the pigment melanin. It is impossible to cure completely efelids. After all, such a skin reaction to the sun is at the genetic level. But it is possible to achieve a certain degree of their lightening. Is it only necessary?
Such a negative perception of redheaded people was also inherent to the ancient Greeks. They believed that after their death, redheads are certainly reborn into vampires. And only in Rome, redheaded people were revered as a talisman. And today, people with red hair or freckles make up no more than two percent of the total population of the planet. Ironically, but the fact is that when thinking about dyeing hair, more than half of the girls dream of getting a spectacular red shade to stand out from the rest.
Cosmetologists do not recommend getting rid of freckles on the face, because the skin will have to endure the effects of acids, and the effect of the procedure may be very small, because you can’t get rid of spots forever.
Markings of the sun
This is different when it comes to pigment spots. Their medical name also sounds beautiful – lentigo, from the Latin word lentigo, which can be translated as “lentigo spot”. Lentigo is a flat spot on the skin that slightly rises above its surface. They are dark brown in color and have a diameter from 1.5 mm to 3 cm. Lentigo is a pigmental nevus. It can be congenital and acquired.
Usually, lentigo has a round or oblong shape. The pigmentation and size of the spot depend on its variety. Stains can form on a wide variety of body parts and even on mucous membranes. People with light and sensitive skin are most susceptible to the disease. Lentigo is also a cluster of melanocyte pigment cells. The formation of pigment spots can lead to deep injury of the skin, as well as disorders of the endocrine system of the body, as well as intoxication or inflammation.
The exact causes of the disease are unknown. The appearance of pigment spots on the body may contribute:
- hypersensitivity to ultraviolet;
- prolonged stay in the sun, repeated sunburns;
- sunburns in childhood;
- light skin and hair;
- excessively frequent visits to the solarium;
- old age;
- immunity suppression when using cytostatics, immunosuppressants, glucocorticoids, as well as in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome;
- infection with human papillomavirus;
- hormonal changes during puberty, pregnancy.
Solar lentigo – brown spots up to 1 cm in diameter – often manifests on the face and hands of people over 50 years of age who have been in the sun. It is more common in men than in women. To distinguish between lentigo and freckles, additional diagnosis is required. It is important that lentigo may be a risk factor for the development of malignant skin tumors. The best methods to prevent the occurrence of sun lentigo are to use sunscreen products and avoid exposure to sunlight on the skin.
Solvent-hyperpigmentation is a consequence of increased melanin synthesis in response to skin damage. It can take the form of a localized or diffuse form, the degree of skin involvement depends on the localization of the primary lesion. Clinically, inflammatory hyperpigmentation manifests itself in the form of irregularly shaped dark spots that occur in areas where there used to be an inflammatory process. It can occur in any area of the human body, but causes the greatest discomfort and stress in the patient when it appears on the face.
Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation develops in people with a predisposition to it is difficult to treat. Moreover, inflammation that occurs during peeling or laser therapy may worsen the course of the disease. Thus, only local preparations are used for treatment, which have no irritant properties. These drugs include hydroquinone, coyaic acid and retinoids. However, they have limited effectiveness. The best treatment is to avoid exposure to sunlight, the use of sunscreen products. Patients should also understand that this pathology can recur.
In order to determine the correct method of treatment, it is important to diagnose the cause of spots. To whiten a simple lentigo, are prescribed:
- cosmetic procedures for exfoliation of the pigment spot;
- skin protection products against the sun’s rays;
- application of external azelaic acid;
- use of arbutin;
- use of licorice extract.
There is no effective standard method for the treatment of pigment diseases, so in the treatment of various pigmentation disorders have to use different therapeutic methods. Therefore, it is not recommended to engage in self-treatment.
To prevent the formation of pigment spots, you need to take care of your skin and protect it from the negative effects of sunlight. It is necessary to protect your face from the excessive influence of the sun – wear a wide-brimmed hat in summer, do not go out in the active sun in the summer daytime heat, use protective cosmetics against the effects of ultraviolet rays.